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Even as canopy rebounded after a storm, energy savings in buildings declined. Natural regeneration of Buckthorn in vacant lots and hedgerows increased canopy, but site and species character lessened shade value.

Nowak, D. J., Hoehn, R. E., Bodine, A. R., Greenfield, E. J., & O’Neil-Dunne, J.

“Urban forest structure, ecosystem services and change in Syracuse, NY,” Urban Ecosystems, 19(4), 1455-1477.

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