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The results demonstrate that vegetation selection is critical to performance for nutrient and sediment removal. Using biofilters built according to observed ‘optimal specifications’ can reliably remove both nutrients (up to 70% for nitrogen and 85% for phosphorus) and suspended solids (consistently over 95%).

Bratieres K, Fletcher TD, Deletic A, Zinger Y.

Bratieres K, Fletcher TD, Deletic A, Zinger Y, 2008, Nutrient and sediment removal by stormwater biofilters: A large-scale design optimization study, Water Research, 42: 3930-3940.

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